Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) and production of nitrogen?

Pressure Swing Adsorption

Nitrogen gas has a very high demand in the chemical industry because of its inertness. Since it does not react normally, we can use it for blanketing and purging purposes to protect important substances from contamination. It can also help to protect explosives and their safe storage. Pressure Swing Adsorption is an efficient method of […]

How to use Bernoulli Equation?

Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli equation is a type of conservation energy (mechanical) principle. In this section, we discuss mechanical energy. The simple definition of mechanical energy is—we can convert it into mechanical work directly and completely by using an ideal mechanical device, like an ideal turbine. Kinetic and potential energies are a form of mechanical energy. Thermal energy […]

The Consequences of The Third Law of Thermodynamics

Third law of thermodynamics

We can find a few hints of the third law of thermodynamics in the interpretation of the second law. Like in refrigeration the co-efficient of performance (COP) is: It is the ratio of the heat removed from a cold object to the work supplied for achieving the same removal of heat. If the COP is […]

What is the underlying concept of Free Energy?

Free Energy

The concept of free energy tells us—when does a process occur spontaneously? The second law of thermodynamics introduced to us the spontaneity of any process by using Clausius Inequality: dS > đq/Tsurrounding The above inequality suggests that for an irreversible spontaneous process, the entropy always increases. But to find out, whether a process is spontaneous […]

What makes the second law of thermodynamics so important?

The second law of thermodynamics is the most interesting and yet least understood of all. It helps us understand why does any change occur in the universe? The discussion on the second law of thermodynamics started in19th century—steam engines were a hot subject in those days. There are generally three main parts of a steam […]

First Law of Thermodynamics, The Best Ever Explanation

First Law of Thermodynamics

The simplest definition of the first law of thermodynamics is, “We can neither create energy nor destroy it. The energy can however be changed from one form to another”. This is the simplest yet elusive concept of the first law of thermodynamics. Before coming to a detailed explanation of the first law, we must know […]

What Important Purpose do the Compressors Serve in Industry?


Compressors are mechanical devices. We use them to increase the pressure of gases by decreasing their volume. Compressors are almost similar to the pumps in operation. Since both serve the same purpose of increasing the pressure on the fluid and transporting it through the pipes. However, in the case of pumps, most of the liquids […]

What happens at Absolute Zero Temperature?

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics laid the foundation of the important thermodynamic property, “Temperature“. While absolute zero temperature is the lowest attainable temperature (theoretically) in thermodynamics. Absolute zero temperature is ‘0 K’ on the Kelvin Scale which is the absolute temperature scale. Earlier in classical physics, scientists believed that all molecular motion ceases at absolute […]

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics a Very Important Concept

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

The zeroth law of thermodynamics establishes the concept of temperature by introducing the term “thermodynamic equilibrium”. It says: “If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium each with a third body, then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other”. By mere looking at this concept one may say it is quite intuitive. What else […]

The Most Important Types of Heat Exchangers

The most important types of heat exchangers

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between different fluids. In industries, we use heat exchangers for both cooling and heating purposes. The basic idea of a heat exchanger is that heat always travels from high to low temperature. However, there are a lot of technical aspects involved in its optimization for […]